This section covers the computational features of Texis. They are adequate to allow the user to perform computations on the data and/or retrieve rows based on conditions involving computations. For example, you can adjust salaries for a 5 percent across-the-board increase, or you can compute weekly salaries (i.e., salary divided by 52).

Arithmetic calculations are performed on fields, or columns, in the
database. An *arithmetic expression* is used to describe the
desired computation. The expression consists of column names and
numeric constants connected by parentheses and arithmetic operators.
Table here shows the arithmetic operators used in Texis.

Arithmetic Operation | Texis Operator | Example |

Addition | `+` | `SALARY + 2000` |

Subtraction | `-` | `SALARY - 1000` |

Multiplication | `*` | `SALARY * 1.05` |

Division | `/` | `SALARY / 26` |

Typically, the arithmetic expression is used in the `SELECT`

clause to
perform calculations on data stored in the table.

**Example:**
Next year every employee will receive a 5 percent salary increase.
List the names of each employee, his or her current salary, and next
year's salary.

Enter this statement:

Where "SELECT ENAME, SALARY, SALARY * 1.05 FROM EMPLOYEE ;

`SALARY * 1.05`

" is the arithmetic expression.
The results are:

ENAME SALARY SALARY * 1.05 Aster, John A. 32000 33600 Barrington, Kyle 45000 47250 Chapman, Margaret 22000 23100 Jackson, Herbert 30000 31500 Price, Stella 42000 44100 Sanchez, Carla 35000 36750 Smith, Roberta 25000 26250

The expression "`SALARY * 1.05`

" results in each value in the
salary column being multiplied by 1.05. The results are then
displayed in a new column that is labeled `SALARY * 1.05`

.

If more than one arithmetic operator is used in an arithmetic expression, parentheses can be used to control the order in which the arithmetic calculations are performed. The operations enclosed in parentheses are computed before operations that are not enclosed in parentheses. For example, the expression:

means bonus is added to salary, and then this result is multiplied by 12.12 * (SALARY + BONUS)

If parentheses are omitted or if several operations are included within the parentheses, the order in which calculations are performed is as follows:

- First, all multiplication and division operations are performed.
- Then, all addition and subtraction operations are performed.

For example, in the expression:

the value in the SALARY column is multiplied by .05, and then the salary value is added to this intermediate result.SALARY + SALARY * .05

When two or more computations in an expression are at the same level (e.g., multiplication and division), the operations are executed from left to right. For example, in the expression:

the salary value is first divided by 12, and then this result is multiplied by 1.05.SALARY / 12 * 1.05

Arithmetic calculation can also be used in a `WHERE`

clause to select
rows based on a calculated condition. In addition, arithmetic
expressions can be used in the `HAVING` and `ORDER BY` clauses, which will
be discussed in later sections of this chapter.

**Example:**
List the names of all employees earning a monthly salary above $3000.

This query:

results in:SELECT ENAME FROM EMPLOYEE WHERE (SALARY/12) > 3000 ;

ENAME Barrington, Kyle Price, Stella

The rows in the `EMPLOYEE`

table are retrieved if the condition "salary
divided by 12" is greater than $3000. This was true only for
Barrington and for Price, whose annual salaries (respectively 45,000
*and* 42,000) are greater than $3000 when divided by 12 months.

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